Teratology, Teratogens, and Fetotoxic Agents
What percentage of all birth defects is caused by exposure to medications during pregnancy?
What is the strict definition of a trophogen?
a. An agent that alters growth
b. An agent that interferes with normal function of an organ
c. An agent that interferes with normal maturation of an organ
Which of the following drawbacks is typical of case-control studies when studying potential teratogens?
b. Lack of a control group
c. Only causality can be established
What is the background rate of major congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth?
Which of the following criteria is not required to prove teratogenicity of a particular agent?
a. The agent must cross the placenta.
b. Exposure to the agent must occur during organogenesis.
c. The association with the teratogen must be biologically plausible.
d. Two or more high-quality epidemiological studies must report similar findings.
If discordant among fetuses, which of the following can render certain fetuses more susceptible to a teratogen?
b. Folic acid pathway disturbances
c. Paternal exposures to certain drugs