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Teratology, Teratogens, and Fetotoxic Agents

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What percentage of all birth defects is caused by exposure to medications during pregnancy?

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a. 1%

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b. 7%

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c. 11%

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d. 17%

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What is the strict definition of a trophogen?

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a. An agent that alters growth

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b. An agent that interferes with normal function of an organ

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c. An agent that interferes with normal maturation of an organ

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d. All of the above

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Which of the following drawbacks is typical of case-control studies when studying potential teratogens?

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a. Recall bias

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b. Lack of a control group

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c. Only causality can be established

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d. All of the above

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What is the background rate of major congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth?

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a. 0.5%

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b. 3%

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c. 6%

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d. 9%

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Which of the following criteria is not required to prove teratogenicity of a particular agent?

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a. The agent must cross the placenta.

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b. Exposure to the agent must occur during organogenesis.

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c. The association with the teratogen must be biologically plausible.

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d. Two or more high-quality epidemiological studies must report similar findings.

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If discordant among fetuses, which of the following can render certain fetuses more susceptible to a teratogen?

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a. Fetal genome

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b. Folic acid pathway disturbances

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c. Paternal exposures to certain drugs

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d. All of the above

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What ...

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