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The Preterm Newborn

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Neonates born prematurely compared with term newborns have higher associated rates of which of the following?

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a. Congenital malformations

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b. Necrotizing enterocolitis

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c. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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d. All of the above

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Following birth, neonatal alveoli must rapidly clear amnionic fluid and remain expanded to permit gas exchange. All EXCEPT which of the following assist this transition?

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a. Lymphatic absorption of amnionic fluid

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b. Pulmonary vasculature absorption of amnionic fluid

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c. Chest compression by the vaginal walls during delivery

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d. Surfactant-related increases in alveolar surface tension

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Clinical signs of respiratory distress syndrome include all EXCEPT which of the following?

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a. Grunting

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b. Hypertension

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c. Respiratory acidosis

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d. Chest wall retraction during inspiration

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A 30-week newborn displays grunting, nasal flaring, chest retractions, and diminished oxygen saturation. Chest radiography shows a moderate left pneumothorax, seen here. In general, all EXCEPT which of the following should be included in the initial differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in a preterm neonate?

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a. Sepsis

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b. Diaphragmatic hernia

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c. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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d. Persistent fetal circulation

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With respiratory distress syndrome, as shown here, a chest radiograph will most likely display which of the following?

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a. Perihilar infiltrate

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b. Diffuse reticulogranular infiltrate

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c. Increased central bronchovascular markings

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d. Honeycomb pattern with or without air-fluid levels

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Once diagnosed, respiratory distress syndrome is preferably treated with which of the following?

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