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Cardiovascular Disorders

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What percent of pregnancies are complicated by heart disease?

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a. 0.1%

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b. 1%

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c. 4%

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d. 8%

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Which of the following parameters increases by 40 percent in pregnancy?

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a. Heart rate

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b. Cardiac output

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c. Mean arterial pressure

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d. Left ventricular stroke work index

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Which aspect of cardiac physiology does not change in pregnancy?

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a. Mean arterial pressure

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b. Pulmonary vascular resistance

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c. Left ventricular contractility

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d. Left ventricular stroke work index

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Which of the following is never a normal finding in pregnancy?

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a. Dyspnea

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b. Systolic murmur

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c. Diastolic murmur

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d. Exercise intolerance

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When encountered in an obstetrical patient, which of the following are considered expected variations from the nonpregnant state?

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a. Larger cardiac silhouette seen on chest radiograph

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b. Tricuspid regurgitation seen during echocardiography

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c. Increased left atrial end-diastolic dimensions seen during echocardiography

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d. All of the above

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All EXCEPT which of the following are electrocardiogram changes seen in normal pregnancy?

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a. Increased voltage

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b. 15-degree left axis deviation

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c. Premature atrial contractions

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d. ST segment changes in inferior leads

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A pregnant woman with preexisting cardiac disease is comfortable at rest but cannot stand up to brush her teeth without experiencing chest pain. What is her New York Heart Association classification?

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