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Menopausal Transition

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The menopausal transition is a progressive endocrinologic continuum that takes reproductive-aged women from regular, cyclic, predictable menses characteristic of ovulatory cycles to ovarian senescence and menopause. Most women can now expect to live what percentage of their lifetime in menopause?

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a. 15

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b. 20

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c. 25

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d. 33

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Premature ovarian failure is associated with a persistently elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level and refers to the cessation of menses before which of the following ages?

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a. 35 years

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b. 40 years

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c. 45 years

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d. 51 years

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Characteristically, menopause begins with cycle irregularity that extends to 1 year after permanent cessation of menses. The more correct, scientific terminology for this time is menopausal transition, and it typically takes place over a span of how many years?

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a. 1 to 2 years

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b. 2 to 3 years

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c. 4 to 7 years

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d. 5 to 10 years

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A number of environmental, genetic, and surgical influences may alter ovarian aging. Which of the following has been found to INCREASE the age of menopause?

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a. Smoking

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b. Chemotherapy

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c. Ovarian surgery

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d. Pelvic radiation

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During the reproductive life of a woman, gonadotropin-releasing hormone is released in a pulsatile fashion from which of the following?

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a. Corpus luteum

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b. Ovarian follicle

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c. Pituitary gonadotropes

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d. Arcuate nucleus of the medial basal hypothalamus

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With ovarian failure during menopausal transition, the negative-feedback loop is opened by cessation of ovarian steroid hormone release. This causes which of the following?

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a. A rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels

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