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The Mature Woman

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Menopause may be identified by which of the following?

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a. The point in time 1 year after cessation of menses

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b. The time when menstruation permanently stops due to loss of ovarian function

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c. The state associated with physical symptoms and with metabolic and structural changes related to declining estrogen levels

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d. All of the above

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Regarding the large observational Nurses' Health Study from 1985, all EXCEPT which of the following are correct?

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a. It identified a significant reduction in heart disease among postmenopausal hormone users.

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b. It suggested at least a doubling of cerebrovascular disease among postmenopausal hormone users.

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c. Its findings likely were confounded by timing of the initiation of the postmenopausal hormone therapy.

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d. It likely was biased by including participants who were not representative of the U.S. postmenopausal population.

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Which of the following is correct regarding the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and HERS II?

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a. They included healthy women without preexisting heart disease.

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b. They showed that estrogen was a useful medication for secondary prevention of cardiac disease progression.

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c. They showed (at 1 year) an increase in myocardial infarctions in women who received conjugated equine estrogen and continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate.

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d. They showed (at 4 years) a sustained increased risk of myocardial infarction in women receiving combined hormone therapy.

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Results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) suggest which of following regarding coronary heart disease risk?

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a. It is decreased among older users (70–79 years).

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b. It is increased among younger users (50–59 years).

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c. It is universally increased among postmenopausal users of combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement.

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d. It is likely decreased among women who initiate combined hormone therapy within 10 years of the menopause.

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Results from the WHI suggest which of following regarding stroke risk?

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