The Mature Woman
Menopause may be identified by which of the following?
a. The point in time 1 year after cessation of menses
b. The time when menstruation permanently stops due to loss of ovarian function
c. The state associated with physical symptoms and with metabolic and structural changes related to declining estrogen levels
Regarding the large observational Nurses' Health Study from 1985, all EXCEPT which of the following are correct?
a. It identified a significant reduction in heart disease among postmenopausal hormone users.
b. It suggested at least a doubling of cerebrovascular disease among postmenopausal hormone users.
c. Its findings likely were confounded by timing of the initiation of the postmenopausal hormone therapy.
d. It likely was biased by including participants who were not representative of the U.S. postmenopausal population.
Which of the following is correct regarding the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and HERS II?
a. They included healthy women without preexisting heart disease.
b. They showed that estrogen was a useful medication for secondary prevention of cardiac disease progression.
c. They showed (at 1 year) an increase in myocardial infarctions in women who received conjugated equine estrogen and continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate.
d. They showed (at 4 years) a sustained increased risk of myocardial infarction in women receiving combined hormone therapy.
Results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) suggest which of following regarding coronary heart disease risk?
a. It is decreased among older users (70–79 years).
b. It is increased among younger users (50–59 years).
c. It is universally increased among postmenopausal users of combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement.
d. It is likely decreased among women who initiate combined hormone therapy within 10 years of the menopause.
Results from the WHI suggest which of following regarding stroke risk?