Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Which of the following are risk factors for the development of pelvic organ prolapse?
Compared with selective use, elective episiotomy during the second stage of labor has been associated with all EXCEPT which of the following?
b. Anal sphincter laceration
c. Increased postpartum pain
d. Postpartum anal incontinence
Which statement is true regarding measurements taken for the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) examination?
a. All are taken at rest, except for total vaginal length, which is obtained during Valsalva.
b. Point D is omitted in the absence of a cervix.
c. GH is measured from the midline of the posterior hymenal ring to the mid-anal opening.
d. Point Aa corresponds to the most distal portion of any part of the upper/proximal anterior vaginal wall.
As shown in this image of vaginal prolapse, when the leading edge of bulge is approximately even with the plane of the hymen or within 1 cm distal to the hymen, a patient is said to have which stage of prolapse?
Reproduced, with permission, from Buckley RG, Knoop KJ: Gynecologic and obstetric conditions. In Knoop KJ, Stack LB, Storrow AB, et al (eds): The Atlas of Emergency Medicine, 3rd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2010, Figure 10-17.
Pelvic organ support is maintained in part by the levator ani muscle, which is composed of all EXCEPT which of the following?