Anal Incontinence and Functional Anorectal Disorders
The definition of anal incontinence includes all EXCEPT which of the following?
b. Incontinence to flatus
c. Incontinence to liquid
d. Incontinence to solid stool
Which of these statements regarding the epidemiology of anal incontinence in adults is true?
a. Anal incontinence prevalence decreases with age.
b. Anal incontinence is more common in men than in women.
c. There are wide variations in the estimated prevalence of anal incontinence.
d. Anal incontinence including flatal incontinence is uncommon, affecting fewer than 1 percent of community-dwelling adults.
Which of the following are required for normal defecation to occur?
a. Normal anorectal sensation
b. Competent anal sphincter complex
c. Adequate rectal capacity and compliance
The anal sphincter complex includes all EXCEPT which of the following?
c. External anal sphincter
d. Internal anal sphincter
This image illustrates a physiologic contraction of pelvic floor muscles in response to increasing intraabdominal pressure. Paradoxical contraction of these muscles during defecation may cause which of the following?
Reproduced, with permission, from Corton MM: Anatomy. In Hoffman BL, Schorge JO, Schaffer JI, et al (eds): Williams Gynecology, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2012, Figure 38-10B.
d. A greater (less obtuse) anorectal angle
Which of the following is true of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex?