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Anal Incontinence and Functional Anorectal Disorders

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The definition of anal incontinence includes all EXCEPT which of the following?

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a. Anal mucoid seepage

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b. Incontinence to flatus

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c. Incontinence to liquid

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d. Incontinence to solid stool

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Which of these statements regarding the epidemiology of anal incontinence in adults is true?

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a. Anal incontinence prevalence decreases with age.

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b. Anal incontinence is more common in men than in women.

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c. There are wide variations in the estimated prevalence of anal incontinence.

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d. Anal incontinence including flatal incontinence is uncommon, affecting fewer than 1 percent of community-dwelling adults.

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Which of the following are required for normal defecation to occur?

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a. Normal anorectal sensation

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b. Competent anal sphincter complex

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c. Adequate rectal capacity and compliance

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d. All of the above

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The anal sphincter complex includes all EXCEPT which of the following?

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a. Puborectalis muscle

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b. Pubococcygeus muscle

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c. External anal sphincter

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d. Internal anal sphincter

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This image illustrates a physiologic contraction of pelvic floor muscles in response to increasing intraabdominal pressure. Paradoxical contraction of these muscles during defecation may cause which of the following?

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Reproduced, with permission, from Corton MM: Anatomy. In Hoffman BL, Schorge JO, Schaffer JI, et al (eds): Williams Gynecology, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2012, Figure 38-10B.

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a. Anal incontinence

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b. Anal mucoid seepage

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c. Impaired evacuation

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d. A greater (less obtuse) anorectal angle

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Which of the following is true of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex?

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