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Preinvasive Lesions of the Lower Genital Tract

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The location of the cervical squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) varies with age and hormonal status. The SCJ tends to move outward onto the ectocervix, as in the example below, with which of the following conditions?

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Reproduced, with permission, from Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL et al (eds): Williams Obstetrics, 23rd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2010, Figure 5-1.

Graphic Jump Location
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a. Menopause

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b. Pregnancy

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c. Prolonged lactation

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d. Use of progestin-only contraceptives

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All EXCEPT which of the following are true statements regarding the cervical transformation zone (TZ)?

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a. Squamous metaplasia occurring within the TZ is abnormal.

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b. Most cervical neoplasia arises within the TZ.

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c. The TZ lies between the original squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium of the cervix.

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d. The location and size of the TZ changes through the process of squamous metaplasia.

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L1 and L2, which are the two late genes of the human papillomavirus (HPV), encode proteins responsible for which of the following?

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a. Capsid construction

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b. Regulatory functions

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c. DNA synthesis and replication

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d. Conformational changes aiding entry into the host cell

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More than 100 human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been identified to date. Clinically, HPV types are classified as high risk (HR) or low risk based upon their oncogenic potential. Which two HR HPV types together account for approximately 70 percent of cervical cancers worldwide?

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a. 6 and 11

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b. 11 and 45

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c. 16 and 18

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d. 18 and 31

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Which of the following is the LEAST common outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

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a. Condylomata

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b. Latent infection

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c. Subclinical infection

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