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Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

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Epidemiologic factors that carry a higher risk of gestational trophoblastic disease include all EXCEPT which of the following?

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a. Older maternal age

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b. Younger paternal age

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c. Use of oral contraceptives

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d. Native Americans living in the United States

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By what factor is the risk of molar pregnancy increased with a prior history of spontaneous abortion?

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a. Double

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b. Triple

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c. Quadruple

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d. Risk is not increased.

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With regard to molar pregnancies, what does the term androgenesis refer to?

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a. Development of theca-lutein cysts

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b. Absence of fetal tissue and amnion

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c. Development of a zygote that contains only maternal chromosomes

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d. Development of a zygote that contains only paternal chromosomes

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All EXCEPT which of the following features are characteristic of complete hydatidiform molar pregnancies?

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Photograph contributed by Dr. Brian Levenson.

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a. Diploid karyotype

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b. Absent fetal tissue

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c. Focal villous edema

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d. 15-percent risk of postmolar malignant sequelae

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All EXCEPT which of the following signs or symptoms are typically seen in the presentation of a complete hydatidiform molar pregnancy?

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a. Preeclampsia

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b. Vaginal bleeding

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c. Increased plasma thyroxine levels

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d. Greater than expected serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels

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This finding, if found bilaterally in the adnexa of a patient with a molar pregnancy, increases the risk of which of the following?

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a. Preeclampsia

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