Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Epidemiologic factors that carry a higher risk of gestational trophoblastic disease include all EXCEPT which of the following?
c. Use of oral contraceptives
d. Native Americans living in the United States
By what factor is the risk of molar pregnancy increased with a prior history of spontaneous abortion?
d. Risk is not increased.
With regard to molar pregnancies, what does the term androgenesis refer to?
a. Development of theca-lutein cysts
b. Absence of fetal tissue and amnion
c. Development of a zygote that contains only maternal chromosomes
d. Development of a zygote that contains only paternal chromosomes
All EXCEPT which of the following features are characteristic of complete hydatidiform molar pregnancies?
Photograph contributed by Dr. Brian Levenson.
d. 15-percent risk of postmolar malignant sequelae
All EXCEPT which of the following signs or symptoms are typically seen in the presentation of a complete hydatidiform molar pregnancy?
c. Increased plasma thyroxine levels
d. Greater than expected serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels
This finding, if found bilaterally in the adnexa of a patient with a molar pregnancy, increases the risk of which of the following?