Vaginal flora of a normal, asymptomatic reproductive-aged woman includes multiple anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacterial species. Anaerobes predominate over aerobic species by approximately what factor?
Normal colonization of the vaginal mucosa by bacteria serves what main physiologic function?
c. Stimulates epithelial differentiation
d. Facilitates production of beneficial antibodies
In normal, healthy women, bacterial species can be recovered from what locations?
c. Peritoneal fluid of cul-de-sac
What is the typical range of normal vaginal pH?
The rise in vaginal pH observed after menopause is correlated with which of the following?
a. Low serum estradiol levels
b. Decrease in vaginal cellular glycogen content
c. High serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels
Which of the following is NOT one of the three clinical diagnostic criteria for bacterial vaginosis described by Amsel and associates (1983)?
Photograph contributed by Dr. Lauri Campagna and Mercedes Pineda, WHNP.
Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, et al: Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med 74:14, 1983
a. Abnormally high vaginal pH
b. Presence of an abnormal discharge and erythema of the vagina