Age has the greatest influence in the evaluation of a pelvic mass. Which of the following statements regarding demographic factors and pelvic masses is true?
a. Malignant ovarian tumors in children and adolescents are common.
b. Most gynecologic pelvic masses in prepubertal and adolescent girls involve the ovary.
c. Malignancy is a more frequent cause of pelvic masses in reproductive-aged women than in postmenopausal women.
Which of the following statements regarding the pathology of leiomyomas is true as shown in part by these low-and high-power histologic images?
L = leiomyoma; M = myometrium. Photographs contributed by Dr. Kelley Carrick.
a. Each leiomyoma is derived from multiple progenitor myocytes.
b. Mitotic activity in their elongated smooth muscle bundles is common.
c. Leiomyomas possess a distinct autonomy from their surrounding myometrium.
d. Necrosis and degeneration develop infrequently in leiomyomas because of their abundant and well-organized blood supply.
Which of the following factors decreases the risk for development of leiomyomas?
c. Elevated body mass index (BMI)
d. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
Mechanisms by which leiomyomas create a hyperestrogenic environment requisite for their growth and maintenance include which of the following?
a. Leiomyomas convert estradiol to estrone.
b. Leiomyoma cells contain a greater density of estrogen receptors compared with normal myometrium.
c. Leiomyomas contain higher levels of cytochrome P450 aromatase, which allows for conversion of androgens to estrogen.
What type of leiomyoma is shown in this sonographic image?