Vaginal flora of a normal, asymptomatic reproductive-aged woman includes multiple aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species. Anaerobes predominate over aerobic species by approximately what factor?
Normal colonization of the vaginal mucosa by bacteria is known to serve what main physiologic function?
c. Stimulate epithelial differentiation
d. Facilitate production of beneficial antibodies
Which of the following statements is true regarding the normal presence of bacteria in the female reproductive tract?
a. The upper reproductive tract is sterile.
b. Bacterial colonization is restricted to the lower genital tract.
c. Presence of bacteria in the upper reproductive tract indicates active infection.
d. The upper reproductive tract is not sterile, and the presence of certain bacterial species does not indicate active infection.
What is the typical normal range of vaginal pH?
The rise in vaginal pH observed after menopause correlates with which of the following?
a. Increased lactic acid production by bacteria
b. Decrease in vaginal cellular glycogen content
c. Use of oral or intravaginal estrogen replacement
Which factor can influence female reproductive tract flora?
a. Hormone replacement therapy
b. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use
c. Phase within the menstrual cycle