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Gynecologic Infection

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Vaginal flora of a normal, asymptomatic reproductive-aged woman includes multiple aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species. Anaerobes predominate over aerobic species by approximately what factor?

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a. 5

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b. 10

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c. 50

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d. 100

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Normal colonization of the vaginal mucosa by bacteria is known to serve what main physiologic function?

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a. Unknown

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b. Stimulate lubrication

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c. Stimulate epithelial differentiation

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d. Facilitate production of beneficial antibodies

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Which of the following statements is true regarding the normal presence of bacteria in the female reproductive tract?

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a. The upper reproductive tract is sterile.

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b. Bacterial colonization is restricted to the lower genital tract.

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c. Presence of bacteria in the upper reproductive tract indicates active infection.

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d. The upper reproductive tract is not sterile, and the presence of certain bacterial species does not indicate active infection.

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What is the typical normal range of vaginal pH?

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a. 3.0 to 3.5

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b. 4.0 to 4.5

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c. 5.0 to 5.5

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d. 6.0 to 6.5

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The rise in vaginal pH observed after menopause correlates with which of the following?

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a. Increased lactic acid production by bacteria

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b. Decrease in vaginal cellular glycogen content

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c. Use of oral or intravaginal estrogen replacement

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d. All of the above

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Which factor can influence female reproductive tract flora?

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a. Hormone replacement therapy

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b. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use

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c. Phase within the menstrual cycle

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d. All of the above

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d...

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