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First-Trimester Abortion

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The World Health Organization defines abortion as any spontaneous or induced pregnancy termination prior to how many weeks’ gestation?

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a. 18

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b. 20

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c. 22

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d. 24

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Approximately what percentage of first-trimester abortions is anembryonic, that is, with no identifiable embryonic elements?

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a. 5 percent

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b. 25 percent

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c. 50 percent

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d. 90 percent

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Most early pregnancy losses are clinically silent. Highly sensitive maternal serum β‑human chorionic gonadotropin assays indicate approximately what percentage of pregnancies is lost after implantation?

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a. 0.5 percent

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b. 10 percent

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c. 30 percent

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d. 60 percent

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More than 80 percent of spontaneous abortions occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. What percentage of first-trimester abortions results from chromosomal anomalies?

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a. 15 percent

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b. 35 percent

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c. 55 percent

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d. 75 percent

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Which of the following chromosomal anomalies is most frequently identified with first-trimester abortion?

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a. Triploidy

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b. Monosomy X (45,X)

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c. Autosomal trisomy

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d. Balanced robertsonian translocation

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Monosomy X (45,X) is the single most common specific chromosomal abnormality in abortuses. Cystic hygromas, shown here at the fetal neck, are a common sonographic finding with this syndrome and carry a poor prognosis. This syndrome is known by what eponym?

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a. Down syndrome

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b. Turner syndrome

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c. Anderson syndrome

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d. Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome

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