An ectopic (extrauterine) pregnancy is one in which the blastocyst implants somewhere other than the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity. Reported ectopic pregnancy incidence rates vary but account for up to what percentage of pregnancies in the United States?
Several factors raise the estimated incidence of ectopic pregnancy and include which of the following?
a. Improved sensitivity of diagnostic tools
b. Increased use of assisted reproductive technology
c. Greater prevalence of sexually transmitted disease
Which of the following confers the highest risk of ectopic pregnancy?
b. Prior ectopic pregnancy
c. Assisted reproductive technology
d. Positive test result for cervical Chlamydia trachomatis
You are counseling a nullipara to discontinue her cigarette smoking prior to attempting pregnancy. Among the numerous adverse pregnancy consequences of tobacco use, you list an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. Women who smoke more than one pack of cigarettes daily increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy by up to what amount?
Contraception lowers overall pregnancy rates and thereby lowers ectopic pregnancy rates. However, if pregnancy does occur, which of the following methods slightly increases the relative incidence of ectopic pregnancy?
b. Combined hormonal contraceptives
c. Progestin-only contraceptive pills
Acute inflammation has been implicated in tubal damage that predisposes to ectopic pregnancy. Which of the following recurrent infections has been reported to cause such damage, including intraluminal inflammation, subsequent fibrin deposition, and tubal scarring?