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Preinvasive Lesions of the Lower Genital Tract

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Since widespread introduction of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test in the 1950s, cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of and mortality rate from invasive cervical cancer by more than what percentage?

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a. 50 percent

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b. 60 percent

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c. 70 percent

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d. 90 percent

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Approximately what percentage of U.S. women who undergo Pap testing will have an abnormal result prompting further patient evaluation?

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a. 0.19 percent

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b. 0.7 percent

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c. 7 percent

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d. 19 percent

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In the lower genital tract, the term intraepithelial neoplasia refers to squamous epithelial lesions that are potential precursors of invasive cancer. In the case of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), what term applies when abnormal cells involve the full thickness of the squamous epithelium?

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a. CIN 1

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b. CIN 2

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c. CIN 3

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d. Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

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The location of the cervical squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) varies with age and hormonal status. As shown in the image below, the SCJ tends to evert outward onto the ectocervix during which of the following conditions?

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a. Menopause

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b. Pregnancy

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c. Prolonged lactation

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d. Long-term progestin-only contraceptive use

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All of the following are true statements regarding the cervix transformation zone (TZ) EXCEPT:

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a. Nearly all cervical neoplasia develops within the TZ.

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b. Squamous metaplasia occurring within the TZ is abnormal.

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c. The TZ lies between the original squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium.

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d. The location and size of the TZ change through the process of squamous metaplasia.

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