What percentage of pregnancy-related deaths in the United States were attributable to cardiovascular diseases between 2011 and 2013?
Which of the following does not contribute to the 40% increase in cardiac output seen during normal pregnancy?
b. Increased left ventricular contractility
c. Decreased systemic vascular resistance
d. All of the above contribute to increased cardiac output in pregnancy
You are caring for a 24-year-old G1 with severe aortic stenosis. When in pregnancy are you most concerned about cardiac decompensation?
b. During the first trimester
c. During the second trimester
d. During the third trimester
Which of the following best describes the remodeling of the heart that occurs in normal pregnancy?
a. Eccentric left ventricular mass expansion with spherical remodeling
b. Concentric left ventricular mass expansion with spherical remodeling
c. Eccentric left ventricular mass expansion with longitudinal remodeling
d. Concentric left ventricular mass expansion with longitudinal remodeling
Regarding diagnostic studies, which of the following correctly describes a normal change that is characteristic of pregnancy?
a. Improved systolic function on echocardiographic assessment
b. A decrease in the cardiac silhouette size on chest radiograph
c. An average 15-degree left axis deviation on electrocardiogram
A 32-year-old G2P1 presents to your office at 17 weeks’ gestation. She reports a history of tetralogy of Fallot, which was repaired in infancy. She appears comfortable on the exam table with a heart rate of 92 beats per minute and a blood pressure of 96/62 mm Hg. However, she ...