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The Preterm Newborn

Neonates born prematurely compared with term newborns have higher associated rates of which of the following?

a. Congenital malformations

b. Necrotizing enterocolitis

c. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

d. All of the above

Following birth, neonatal alveoli must rapidly clear amnionic fluid and remain expanded to permit gas exchange. All EXCEPT which of the following assist this transition?

a. Lymphatic absorption of amnionic fluid

b. Pulmonary vasculature absorption of amnionic fluid

c. Chest compression by the vaginal walls during delivery

d. Surfactant-related increases in alveolar surface tension

Clinical signs of respiratory distress syndrome include all EXCEPT which of the following?

a. Grunting

b. Hypertension

c. Respiratory acidosis

d. Chest wall retraction during inspiration

A 30-week newborn displays grunting, nasal flaring, chest retractions, and diminished oxygen saturation. Chest radiography shows a moderate left pneumothorax, seen here. In general, all EXCEPT which of the following should be included in the initial differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in a preterm neonate?

a. Sepsis

b. Diaphragmatic hernia

c. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

d. Persistent fetal circulation

With respiratory distress syndrome, as shown here, a chest radiograph will most likely display which of the following?

a. Perihilar infiltrate

b. Diffuse reticulogranular infiltrate

c. Increased central bronchovascular markings

d. Honeycomb pattern with or without air-fluid levels

Once diagnosed, respiratory distress syndrome is preferably treated with which of the following?

a. Intravenous ...

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