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Cardiovascular Disorders

What percent of pregnancies are complicated by heart disease?

a. 0.1%

b. 1%

c. 4%

d. 8%

Which of the following parameters increases by 40 percent in pregnancy?

a. Heart rate

b. Cardiac output

c. Mean arterial pressure

d. Left ventricular stroke work index

Which aspect of cardiac physiology does not change in pregnancy?

a. Mean arterial pressure

b. Pulmonary vascular resistance

c. Left ventricular contractility

d. Left ventricular stroke work index

Which of the following is never a normal finding in pregnancy?

a. Dyspnea

b. Systolic murmur

c. Diastolic murmur

d. Exercise intolerance

When encountered in an obstetrical patient, which of the following are considered expected variations from the nonpregnant state?

a. Larger cardiac silhouette seen on chest radiograph

b. Tricuspid regurgitation seen during echocardiography

c. Increased left atrial end-diastolic dimensions seen during echocardiography

d. All of the above

All EXCEPT which of the following are electrocardiogram changes seen in normal pregnancy?

a. Increased voltage

b. 15-degree left axis deviation

c. Premature atrial contractions

d. ST segment changes in inferior leads

A pregnant woman with preexisting cardiac disease is comfortable at rest but cannot stand up to brush her teeth without experiencing chest pain. What is her New York Heart Association classification?

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