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First-Trimester Abortion

The World Health Organization defines abortion as any spontaneous or induced pregnancy termination prior to how many weeks’ gestation?

a. 18

b. 20

c. 22

d. 24

Approximately what percentage of first-trimester abortions is anembryonic, that is, with no identifiable embryonic elements?

a. 5 percent

b. 25 percent

c. 50 percent

d. 90 percent

Most early pregnancy losses are clinically silent. Highly sensitive maternal serum β‑human chorionic gonadotropin assays indicate approximately what percentage of pregnancies is lost after implantation?

a. 0.5 percent

b. 10 percent

c. 30 percent

d. 60 percent

More than 80 percent of spontaneous abortions occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. What percentage of first-trimester abortions results from chromosomal anomalies?

a. 15 percent

b. 35 percent

c. 55 percent

d. 75 percent

Which of the following chromosomal anomalies is most frequently identified with first-trimester abortion?

a. Triploidy

b. Monosomy X (45,X)

c. Autosomal trisomy

d. Balanced robertsonian translocation

Monosomy X (45,X) is the single most common specific chromosomal abnormality in abortuses. Cystic hygromas, shown here at the fetal neck, are a common sonographic finding with this syndrome and carry a poor prognosis. This syndrome is known by what eponym?

a. Down syndrome

b. Turner syndrome

c. Anderson syndrome

d. Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome

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