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Endometriosis

As shown here, with endometriosis, which of the following is ectopically located?

Reproduced with permission from Hoffman BL. Endometriosis. In Hoffman BL, Schorge JO, Bradshaw KD, et al (eds): Williams Gynecology, 3rd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2016. Photo contributor: Dr Kelley Carrick.

a. Myometrial cells

b. Ectocervical cells

c. Endometrial glands and stroma

d. Endocervical glands and stroma

Compared with the general population, the prevalence of endometriosis is higher in women with which of the following characteristics?

a. Pelvic pain

b. Infertility

c. Affected family member

d. All of the above

Which of the following is a more favored theory to explain the development of endometriosis?

a. Lymphatic spread

b. Coelomic metaplasia

c. Retrograde menstruation

d. Abnormal differentiation of müllerian remnants

A 19-year-old nulligravida presents with worsening dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain during the last year. Transvaginal sonography is completed and shows a unicornuate uterus and an obstructed cavitary rudimentary horn, as shown here. Of other müllerian anomalies, which of the following is LEAST likely to pose a similar risk for endometriosis development?

a. Imperforate hymen

b. Bicornuate uterus

c. Transverse vaginal septum

d. Obstructed hemivagina ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA)

Of the following locations, where is endometriosis LEAST likely to be found?

Reproduced with permission from Carr BR: Endometriosis. In Schorge JO, Schaffer JI, Halvorson LM, et al (eds): Williams Gynecology, 1st ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2008, Figure 10-3.

a. Pleura

b. Ureter

c. Rectovaginal septum

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