Pain may be categorized as visceral or somatic depending upon the type of afferent nerve fibers involved. Which of the following structures derive pain from nerve afferents of the somatic nervous system?
c. Subcutaneous tissue and skin
The illustration below is a dermatome map that describes which of the following?
Adapted with permission from Steege JF, Metzger DA, Levy BS (eds): Chronic Pelvic Pain: an Integrated Approach, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998.
b. Peripheral sensitization
c. Viscerosomatic convergence
d. Areas of skin supplied by single spinal nerves
Afferent nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system transmit information from the viscera and visceral peritoneum. Visceral pain is characterized as which of the following?
d. Generalized, dull ache
Peripheral somatic and visceral nerves often synapse in the spinal cord at the same dorsal horn neurons. These neurons, in turn, relay sensory information to the brain. The cerebral cortex recognizes the signal as coming from the same dermatome regardless of its visceral or somatic nerve origin. This leads to difficulty distinguishing internal organ pain from abdominal wall or pelvic floor pain. What is this phenomenon termed?
d. Viscerosomatic convergence
If tissues are injured, inflammation usually follows with vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. Chemical mediators of this process are prostaglandins and cytokines. Cytokines include which of the following?
c. Tissue necrosis factors