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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Hyperandrogenism

Which of the following is NOT a component of the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosing polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?

a. Oligoovulation or anovulation

b. Polycystic appearing ovaries on sonography

c. Clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism

d. Peripheral distribution of ovarian follicles on sonography

A 25-year-old nulligravida presents with irregular menstrual cycles. Her physical examination shows acanthosis nigricans, clitoromegaly, and temporal balding. Ovarian hyperthecosis is suspected. What sonographic or histologic characteristic of the ovary is most specific to this condition?

a. Complex ovarian mass

b. Ovarian volume greater than 10 mL

c. At least 12 follicles per ovary peripherally distributed

d. Nests of luteinized theca cells distributed in the ovarian stroma

What is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women?

a. Hypothyroidism

b. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

c. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

d. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

First-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome have been shown to have higher circulating levels of which hormone?

a. Testosterone

b. Androstenedione

c. Dihydrotestosterone

d. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS)

In polycystic ovarian syndrome, altered gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility leads to what predominant change in hormone levels?

a. Decreased estrone

b. Decreased testosterone

c. Increased luteinizing hormone

d. Increased follicle-stimulating hormone

In addition to insulin, which of the following hormones stimulates increased testosterone production by the ovaries in polycystic ovarian syndrome?

a. Inhibin

b. Estradiol

c. Luteinizing hormone

d. Follicle-stimulating ...

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