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It has been 25 years since Dr. Roger Sanders envisioned the concept of this book. He first developed and organized a highly successful series of conferences, "Structural Fetal Abnormalities: The Total Picture." National and international experts came together not only to discuss the ultrasound diagnosis of fetal malformations but also to focus on the "total picture," from the time an ultrasound finding was visualized to the final surgical treatment of the structural abnormality. In essence, this is the information that every maternal-fetal medicine specialist, radiologist, geneticist, genetic counselor, or any professional taking care of a family whose unborn child has been diagnosed with a structural abnormality needs to know. It gives them the essential knowledge they need to provide the family counseling regarding prognosis and appropriate management. The principles of a multidisciplinary approach to a pregnancy complicated by a fetal structural malformation, which were discussed at those first conferences, provided the outline for the first edition of this book. Experts in sonography, perinatology, genetics, neonatology, and pediatric surgery were recruited to complete a comprehensive picture of the diagnosis and management of common structural fetal anomalies detected by obstetrical ultrasound. The second edition, published 10 years later, reflected the marked improvements in ultrasound technology and the growing ability to make a precise genetic diagnosis of fetal conditions.

In this third edition, much has been changed from previous editions. These changes mirror the dramatic improvements that have occurred in our ability to diagnose and treat fetal malformations. This edition includes all new images that demonstrate the new and improved ultrasound technologies, such as three-dimensional (3-D) and power Doppler. The sections on genetic etiologies of the structural malformations have required complete revision, indicating the rapid advances in genomics and molecular diagnostics that have occurred in the last decade.

The passage of 20 years also has meant that the former editor, three of four assistant editors, and a number of contributors have retired from the active practice of medicine. But, with the guidance and support of Dr. Sanders, I have assembled a new team of experts to carry on the tradition of excellence that was key to the first two editions. As in previous editions, a sonologist, Lyndon M. Hill, provides the ultrasonic findings of each anomaly, which is complemented by the perspectives of experts in genetics, maternal-fetal medicine (MFM), and neonatology. Isabelle Wilkins in MFM and Barbara Cohlan in neonatology have provided their respective expertise, and I have taken on the role of geneticist for this edition. We have been greatly aided in the endeavor by a large and diverse group of contributors who are our colleagues and collaborators from Magee-Womens Hospital and the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh.

What has remained unchanged in this third edition is the overall format. This book has been a concise, but complete, handbook of structural fetal malformations that provides, at the reader's fingertips, the features of a condition, its differential diagnosis, how to manage the pregnancy, and what to expect in the neonatal period and beyond. The subtle changes made to the format are intended to enhance that sense of a concise but comprehensive reference. Each section has an updated bibliography of suggested readings to provide the reader a source for greater detail on each condition.

In addition to my assistant editors and contributors, others deserve my special thanks for their efforts in bringing this new edition to fruition. My wife, Joan Hogge, not only provided her encouragement and support but also served as the proofreader for the final draft. Adele Leibowitz, my administrative assistant, and Andrea Juhl, Dr. Hill's administrative assistant, were absolutely key to our ability to coordinate and organize the multiple sections of the manuscript and the many ultrasound images that are part of this book. Without the efforts of all of these people, this third edition of Sanders' Structural Fetal Abnormalities would not have been possible.

W. Allen Hogge

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