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Abnormal Labor

Which of the following may be responsible for dystocia in labor?

a. Bony pelvis abnormalities

b. Inadequate expulsive forces

c. Soft tissue abnormalities of the reproductive tract

d. All of the above

The majority of labor dystocia is due to which of the following?

a. Asynclitism

b. Fetal macrosomia

c. Childhood rickets

d. Premature rupture of membranes

Which of these factors influences the progress of labor?

a. Prominent coccyx

b. Pubic symphyseal separation

c. Forward pressure by the leading fetal part

d. Cervical dilation at the time of rupture of membranes

Since the 1960s, what significant advancement has been made in treating dysfunctional labor?

a. Early artificial rupture of membranes

b. Use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening

c. Movement toward vacuum-assisted delivery in the setting of midpelvic arrest

d. Realization that prolonged labor may lead to increased perinatal and maternal morbidity

Uterine contractions in normal labor are characterized by which of the following?

a. Fundal dominance

b. Contractions migrate from caudad to cephalad

c. Pressure of an average spontaneous contraction is 15 mmHg

d. Force of contractions is greatest at the lower uterine segment

Incoordinate uterine dysfunction refers to which of the following?

a. The pressure gradient is distorted

b. Basal uterine tone is appreciably elevated

c. A more forceful contraction of the uterine midsegment than the fundus

d. All of the above

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