Which of the following may be responsible for dystocia in labor?
a. Bony pelvis abnormalities
b. Inadequate expulsive forces
c. Soft tissue abnormalities of the reproductive tract
The majority of labor dystocia is due to which of the following?
d. Premature rupture of membranes
Which of these factors influences the progress of labor?
b. Pubic symphyseal separation
c. Forward pressure by the leading fetal part
d. Cervical dilation at the time of rupture of membranes
Since the 1960s, what significant advancement has been made in treating dysfunctional labor?
a. Early artificial rupture of membranes
b. Use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening
c. Movement toward vacuum-assisted delivery in the setting of midpelvic arrest
d. Realization that prolonged labor may lead to increased perinatal and maternal morbidity
Uterine contractions in normal labor are characterized by which of the following?
b. Contractions migrate from caudad to cephalad
c. Pressure of an average spontaneous contraction is 15 mmHg
d. Force of contractions is greatest at the lower uterine segment
Incoordinate uterine dysfunction refers to which of the following?
a. The pressure gradient is distorted
b. Basal uterine tone is appreciably elevated
c. A more forceful contraction of the uterine midsegment than the fundus