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The Newborn Infant

After delivery, clearance of the amnionic fluid that fills the fetal lungs occurs via which of the following mechanisms?

a. Physical compression of the fetal thorax

b. Absorption of fluid into the neonatal pulmonary circulation

c. Absorption of fluid into the neonatal pulmonary lymphatic system

d. All of the above

Which of the following postnatal changes promotes closure of the ductus arteriosus in the newborn?

a. Fall in pulmonary arterial blood pressure

b. Fall in cardiac output from reduced preload after umbilical cord clamping

c. Increase in pulmonary vascular compression after lung aeration from neonatal inspiration

d. All of the above

Which of the following is not a benefit of delayed cord clamping, as pictured below?

a. Increased iron stores

b. Reduced risk of neonatal bradycardia

c. Reduced hyperbilirubinemia and need for phototherapy

d. Reduced necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates

Which of the following is true regarding neonatal resuscitation?

a. Approximately 1% of newborns need extensive resuscitation after delivery.

b. Newborns delivered at home face risk of death that is 5-fold that of newborns delivered in the hospital.

c. Approximately 30% of newborns require some degree of active resuscitation to stimulate breathing.

d. All of the above

How can primary and secondary apnea in the newborn be distinguished from each other?

a. Stimulation usually reverses primary apnea.

b. Secondary apnea is accompanied by a fall in heart rate and primary is not.

c. Secondary apnea is accompanied by loss of neuromuscular tone and primary is not.

d. All of the ...

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