Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android. Learn more here!


The four parent pelvic types of the Caldwell–Moloy classification. A line passing through the widest transverse diameter divides the inlets into posterior (P) and anterior (A) segments.

FIGURE 10-10

Encephalocele. This transverse image depicts a large defect in the occipital region of the cranium (arrows) through which meninges and brain tissue have herniated.

FIGURE 10-22

Cystic hygromas. A. This 9-week fetus with a cystic hygroma (arrow) was later found to have Noonan syndrome. B. Massive multiseptated hygromas (arrowheads) in the setting of hydrops fetalis at 15 weeks’ gestation.

FIGURE 10-28

Fetal echocardiography gray-scale imaging planes. A. Four-chamber view. B. Left ventricular outflow tract view. The white arrow illustrates the mitral valve becoming the wall of the aorta. The arrow with asterisk marks the interventricular septum becoming the opposing aortic wall. C. Right ventricular outflow tract view. D. Three vessel and trachea view. E. High short-axis view (outflow tracts). F. Low short-axis view (ventricles). G. Aortic arch view. H. Ductal arch view. I. Superior and inferior vena cavae views. Ao = aorta; IVC = inferior vena cava; LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricle; PA = pulmonary artery; RA = right atrium; RV = right ventricle; SVC = superior vena cava.

FIGURE 10-29

Ventricular septal defect. A. In this four-chamber view of a 22-week fetus, a defect (arrow) is noted in the superior (membranous) portion of the interventricular septum. B. The left-ventricular outflow tract view of the same fetus demonstrates a break (arrow) in continuity between the interventricular septum and the anterior wall of the aorta.

FIGURE 10-30

Endocardial cushion defect. A. During ventricular systole, the lateral leaflets of the mitral and triscuspid valves come together in the midline. But the atrioventricular valve plane is abnormal, a common atrium (A) is observed, and there is a visible defect (arrow) in the interventricular septum. B. During diastolic filling, opening of the atrioventricular valves more clearly demonstrates the absence of their medial leaflets.

FIGURE 10-33

M-mode, or motion mode, is a linear display of the events of the cardiac cycle, with time on the x-axis and motion on the y-axis. M-mode is used commonly to measure the fetal heart rate, as in this 12-week fetus.

FIGURE 10-38

Duodenal atresia. The double-bubble sign represents distension of the stomach (S) and the first part of the duodenum (D), as seen on ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.